Fever In Children Is Your Worst Enemy. How To Treat It?

High Temperature Fever

Fever is also known as elevated temperature, hyperthermia, or pyrexia. It refers to a body temperature that is higher than normal. Fevers in children and adults are common. A short-term upsurge in body temperature can help the body fight off illness. However, a serious fever can be a symptom of a severe condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Causes

There are various conditions that trigger fevers. Some possible causes are blood clots, food poisoning, extreme sunburn, infections (e.g., the flu, common cold, and pneumonia), teething (in infants), some immunizations (e.g., diphtheria or tetanus in children), some medications (antibiotics), and some inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease).

Signs and Symptoms

A symptom is something the patient feels while a sign is something other people see. Signs and symptoms of fever are associated with what is known as sickness behavior, including a headache, a loss of appetite, muscle aches, general weakness, dehydration, depression, hyperalgesia, lethargy, sleepiness, sweating, shivering, and feeling cold when nobody else does. If the fever is high, there may be extreme irritability, confusion, convulsions, and delirium.

Diagnosis

It is straightforward to diagnose a fever. The patient’s temperature is taken; if the number is high, he or she has a fever. It is advisable to take the temperature when they are at rest since physical activities can warm them up. A person has a fever if:

  • The temperature in the mouth is higher than 99.9°F (37.7°C)
  • The temperature in the rectum is over 100-101°F (37.5-38.3°C)
  • The temperature under the armpit or inside the ear is over 99°F (37.2°C)

When the doctor has confirmed an elevated body temperature, some diagnostic tests may be conducted, depending on what other signs and symptoms are present. These tests may include blood tests, urine tests, x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and other imaging scans.

Treatments

Dengue Symptoms Over The Counter Drugs

Over the counter drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve) can help reduce fever. If the fever is caused by a bacterial infection, the doctor will recommend an antibiotic. Antibiotics have no influence against viruses, but may sometimes be advised to prevent secondary infections.

If the cause of a fever is cold, which is triggered by a viral infection, you can use NSAIDs to relieve uncomfortable symptoms. NSAIDs will not be effective if the fever is caused by hot weather or prolonged strenuous exercise. The patient needs cooling. If they are confused or unconscious, take them to the hospital straight away. Patients with a fever should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Children and adolescents should not take aspirin since it may trigger a condition called Reye’s syndrome.

Home Remedies

1. Clothing
Dress lightly. Most body heat dissolves through the skin, so overdressing only leads to a higher fever and can make you more uncomfortable. If you have chills or shivers, use a light blanket. Keep the room temperature at a comfortable level for you.
2. Sponging
Sponging is not necessary to lower body temperature. In contrast, it may make you more uncomfortable. Sponging just cools the outside of your body and causes you to shiver, without affecting the internal body temperature. You should use sponging only in an emergency such as heat stroke.
3. Extra fluids
Fever will make your body lose fluid, so you should drink extra fluids. Cool water or drinks might be helpful, but it does not matter whether the drinks are warm or cool.
4. Medicine
Medicine can reduce the fever by 2°F-3°F (1°C-2°C), but cannot bring the temperature down to normal. Two types of medicines that are usually recommended for managing fever are acetaminophen (Abenol, Tempra, Tylenol, drug store and other brands) and ibuprofen (Advil, Brufen, Motrin, drug store and other brands). They are available in capsules, tablets, and liquid formulations of plentiful strengths. Acetaminophen is also a rectal suppository. Do not put a tablet designed for the mouth into your rectum.

Your doctor can help to decide on an adequate formulation and strength for you. The correct dose for a person is based on his body weight. An estimated dose is often provided on the medicine package. These drugs can manage the fever and make you more comfortable, but they do not solve the underlying cause of the fever.

If a baby is less than three months old and has a fever, parents need to see a doctor right away. Fever in an infant may be a sign of a severe infection. Even though this happens on the weekend, do not wait to go to the nearest Emergency Department to have the baby assessed by a doctor. Do not give any medicines to the baby without a doctor’s recommendation.

Acetaminophen and ibuprofen do not react to each other. They may be evenly effective in reducing a temperature. If the baby is already taking other medicines or has a pre-existing medical condition, ask a doctor to make sure that acetaminophen or ibuprofen is safe for the child.

Dengue Fever Aspirin

Do not use ASA (Acetylsalicylic Acid or Aspirin) to treat a baby’s fever unless the doctor has specifically told you to give it. Although rare, ASA has been associated with a severe condition known as Reye’s syndrome. Check the label of other medicines or consult with a pharmacist to make sure they do not contain ASA.

Fever: Myths and Facts

Myth: Fevers cause brain damage.
Fact: It is not true! Most fevers with infections are less than 108°F (42°C); they do not cause brain damage. Only a sustained body temperature greater than 110°F (44°C) can trigger brain damage.

Myth: Fevers are bad for children.
Fact: It is untrue! Fever is just a sign indicating that the body’s defense system has started to work. Fevers help to fight infections since many germs do not survive as well at higher body temperatures do. Even though the child may be uncomfortable, most fevers have a useful effect and may help the body to fight off infection. The main reason to take medicine to decrease fever in children is to help them feel better.


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The Six Most Common Fever Mosquitoes In The World

High Temperature Fever Mosquitoes

Mosquitoes are one of the most dangerous creatures on this planet due to their ability to spread fatal diseases. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), insects kill more than one million people every year through the transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, and West Nile virus. It is easy to understand why they earned such as dangerous reputation. The rate of infection has risen significantly in recent years, and global warming will explode an awful growth of mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Here are six of the most prevalent fever mosquitoes spread around the world.

1. Chikungunya

Chikungunya fever is triggered by a virus that is transmitted to people through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito) and Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito). The incubation period is often 3-7 days and symptoms can involve sudden fever, headache, chills, nausea, vomiting, lower back pain, abdominal pain, joint pain with or without swelling, and a rash. In the current days, there is no vaccine to prevent Chikungunya. Treatment of the disease includes rest, fluids and drugs to relieve pain and fever, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and paracetamol. Aspirin is not advisable since it increase the risk of internal bleeding.

2. Dengue Fever

Another infection caused by viruses common to tropical and subtropical areas is dengue fever. The disease is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in much the same way as other encephalitic viruses. A mosquito is capable of transmitting dengue virus about a week after biting an infected person. Since the virus multiplies and damages cells, the infected person begins to present symptoms such as high fever, headaches, rashes, back and joint pain, and eye pain. If the fever persists up to a week and is accompanied by bruising and bleeding, patients should go to the hospital to check for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).

According to the CDC, the fatality rate for dengue fever is about 5 percent. About 100 million people around the world are infected with dengue each year, especially in Africa and the Western Hemisphere. DHF are estimated in the hundreds of thousands. It is more prevalent in Southeast Asia, where children are extremely susceptible. Like most viruses, no specific treatment can cure dengue fever. Doctors recommend rest, plenty of fluids, and acetaminophen for dengue and hospitalization for DHF.

3. Malaria

Dengue Symptoms Parasites

Malaria is caused by parasites, mostly Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. By feeding on infected humans, female Anopheles mosquitoes imbibe the parasites. The parasites stay in a mosquito’s body for 10-18 days, then is passed on when the mosquito bites somebody. Once in the human body, malaria parasites move to the liver, where they develop and multiply. Finally, the parasites migrate to the bloodstream to continue growing in red blood cells. They destroy the blood cells as they multiply and are released. Afterward, those infected begin to manifest symptoms such as fevers, chills, headaches, sweating, and other flu-like conditions. Sometimes, the infection can lead to more severe reactions, such as kidney failure and death, particularly if left untreated. Patients use quinine and other anti-malarial drugs to attack the parasites in the blood.

4. West Nile virus

West Nile virus is carried in the blood of birds. After feeding on infected birds, Culex mosquitoes pick it and then pass it to humans through their saliva during feeding. The West Nile virus reproduces in the human bloodstream and migrates to the brain, where it affects the central nervous system and causes inflammation of the brain tissue, known as encephalitis. After this happens, the patient will develop high fever, headaches, stiff neck, and swollen lymph nodes. In the most severe cases, the illness can lead to coma, convulsions, and death. Even if a seriously infected person survives, there is a chance of lifelong neurological damage.

No specific treatment is available for West Nile virus. However, only one in every 150 people contracted West Nile virus develop severe symptoms. Those over 50 are most at risk. According to the CDC, approximately 80 percent of infected patients show no symptoms at all. Researchers believe that people who have already infected will develop a natural immunity to West Nile virus, which will last the remainder of their lives.

5. Yellow Fever

Yellow fever virus is a flavivirus common to primates in Africa and South America. It is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti. The virus incubates in the body for 3-6 days before the infected person begins to manifest the common symptoms of fever, chills, nausea, and headache. There might be a short remission before the disease reoccurs with much more serious symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloody vomit, and nosebleeds. Fatality rates range from 15 to 50 percent. Though there is no cure for yellow fever, it is possible to be vaccinated against infection for those who are residing in or traveling to areas where the disease is ongoing.

6. Zika Virus

First found in 1947 in Uganda, Zika virus has spread to almost every country in the world, including Africa, Southeast Asia, the Americas, the Indian subcontinents, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean. In February 2016, Director-General Margaret Chan of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Zika virus as a global public health emergency and called it an extraordinary event. Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, an aggressive daytime biter. People need to be vigilant, apply repellent regularly, and cover as much exposed skin as possible. According to the CDC, the Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) may also be capable of transmitting the Zika virus.

Dengue Fever Microcephaly

At this juncture, no vaccine or cure is available to prevent or treat the fever mosquitoes. Avoiding mosquito bites is now considered the best and only protection against the disease. Pregnant women should postpone travel to countries where Zika is ongoing due to the possible link between Zika virus infection and microcephaly – a neurological disorder wherein babies are born with abnormally small heads and developmental issues. Most patients infected with Zika have no symptoms or do not realize they have it since symptoms are often mild. Common signs include fever, headache, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes).


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